Les pronoms relatifs en anglais
Distinguer entre les pronoms relatifs en anglais: who, which, that, what, whoever etc.
Les pronoms relatifs introduisent une proposition relative - soit comme sujet (who, which, that) , soit comme complément d'objet direct (whom, which, that), soit dans une expression prépositionnelle (to whom, with which, by which, etc).
|Animé.||who||whom||(to, with, by...) whom||whose|
|Inanimé.||which||which||(to, with, by...) which||of which|
- This is the man who sold me a stolen mobile phone
- There were several people at the party, (whom) I'd never met before.
- There were a lot of people at the party, that I'd never met before
- The machine, which had been running non-stop for 36 hours, just stopped.
- The machine, that had been running non-stop for 36 hours, just stopped.
- I know the lady to whom you were talking
- I was in a very difficult situation, from which I could see no way out.
- The events that happened yesterday were rather alarming.
- After what happened yesterday, you ought to be more careful.
- The President,
was a film star, was very popular.
What - pronom relatif nominalWhat est utilisé comme "pronom relatif nominal" - c'est un relatif qui combine en un mot l'antécédent (réel ou implicite) et le pronom relatif. Autrement dit le mot what correspond au français ce que, et non au simple relative que.
Exemples:Les autres mots interrogatifs peuvent aussi être utilisés comme pronom relatif nominal;
- You'll have to manage with what you can find.
- What he said was rather interesting
- I can't understand why you did that. (= I can't understand the reason for which....)
- How you managed to pass your exam I can't imagine. (= I can't imagine the way in which...)
- I can't imagine how you managed to pass your exam
Whoever, whateverIl existe d'autres formes de pronoms relatifs, à usage spécifique ou rare. Notez en particulier whoever et whatever etc., mots qui peuvent se comporter comme pronom personnel, ou comme pronom relatif nominal.
- Whoever heard such an absurd argument !
- Whoever lost the key ought to find it again pretty quickly.
- Whatever you say, I'm not going to believe a
word of it.
(ou rarement...) Whatsoever you say, .....
- Whenever he goes to London, he gets lost.
- We'll give the prize to whoever gets the right answer first.
- You'll have to manage with whatever you can find.
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